The Modifiers: Opacifiers & Colorants


Opacifiers

Opacifiers % Comments
Antimony–Sb2O3 10–12 Toxic
Tin
(Sn2)
5–7 use in majolica glaze
Titanium(TiO2) 8–12 texture, crystals
Zinc
(ZnO)
2–8 crystals, high shrinkage

Colorants

Colorant % Toxic? Color
Cobalt
Co
.25-5 ** blue
Iron
Fe
1-14 ** tan, yellow, brown
Copper
Cu
1-6 ** green, red
Rutile 2-10 ** tan, mottled
Manganese
MnO2
2-10 *** mauve, gray
Nickel
NiO2
1-3 *** gray
Chrome
Cr2O3
1-6 *** green
Vanadium
Pentoxide
5-10 *** yellow

* RESOURCE: The Artist's Complete Health and Safety Guide, 2nd Edition, by Monona Rossol. Allworth Press, NY. ISBN: 1-880559-18-8. This relates to all the arts and should be part of your reference library.

** Check for details on each. In general, with repeated exposure, they may be an irritant; inhalation of dust may cause allergic reactions in some; fumes from firing may cause metal fume fever or asthma-like diseases.

*** Check for details on each. Different types and levels of exposure may cause lung or nervous system disease; some are carcinogens (cancer-producing substances).

LINK to http://digitalfire.com (go to color descriptions)