Heatwork Chart: Transformation of Ceramic Materials by Heat


Kiln Color Cone °F °C Description
white 14 2552° 1400° Porcelain: cone 10-13
yellow 10 2380° 1300° High-fire/Stoneware: cone 8-10, average=cone10
  6 2192° 1200° Mid-range glaze: cone 2-7
  04 1950° 1100° Low-fire/Earthenware:
cone 015-1, average=cone 04
yellow- orange     1000°
  010 1650° 900° Clay particles beginning to vitrify; the lowest BISQUE temperature (cone 010-04)
    1450° 800° Vitrification begins, carbonaceous material is burned off.
red 018 1292° 700° RED HEAT
dull red     600°  
    1060° 500° 573° C, quartz inversion in both heating and cooling stages.
  400° From 480-700° C, chemical water
(water smoking) occurs.
  300° From 300-800° C, carbonaceous material burns off.
439° 200° 220° C, cristobalite expansion (heating), squeeze (cooling)
dark   212° 100° Water converts to steam (expands).